INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PLANT AND ENVIRONMENT 2021-07-17T06:51:21+00:00 Rudra Deo Tripathi Open Journal Systems <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center">International Journal of Plant and Environment (IJPE) is an official organ of International Society of Environmental Botanists (ISEB). It is an inclusive peer reviewed interdisciplinary journal aimed to advance the interaction of plant and environmental science for the betterment of all stakeholders of the society, present and in the future. IJPE welcomes high-quality submissions on all aspects of environmental contamination or air, water and land, bioremediation strategies for pollutants, bio-indication, eco-system dynamics and forest degradation, environment and biodiversity conservation, sustainable agriculture, global change impacts on plants. Responses of plants to abiotic stresses (salinity, heavy metals, drought, temperature stress, flooding etc.) and biotic stress (plant-insect, plant-microbe interaction, etc.), plant environmental interaction at morphology, physiology and molecular levels. Submitted manuscripts are evaluated on the basis of methodological rigor and high ethical standards besides, perceived novelty.</div> </div> <div class="row">&nbsp;</div> Cosmic Farming: A Ray of Hope for Sustainable Horticulture Production and Health Security 2021-07-17T06:51:19+00:00 Ram Kripal Pathak Ram Awadh Ram Soil fertility and environmental quality are critical and crucial for survival of humanity at the planet earth. Agrochemicals based farming over 5-6 decades has badly affected the soil biology and environmental ecology in many regions of the world. Ultimately the three basic elements of Nature i.e., soil, water and air have been polluted. Now it is well established that any amount of agrochemicals pumped in cannot restore soil fertility as well as sustainable agriculture production. It is only possible by mediating everlasting sources of energy. Cosmic farming, being promoted by us is based on systematic and synergistic mediating of everlasting source of energy by few simple techniques. Since human body is a mini replica of cosmos, hence food produced and consumed in consonance of natures’ gesture without use of agrochemicals will be Sattvik, full of nutrition and therapeutic values. Horticultural crops are well suited for cosmic production and consumption. The same technique is equally effective for all crops and in each ecological situation. Looking at the current plight of small and marginal farmers and pathetic situation of indigenous cow both can be addressed with assertive promotion of cosmic farming even in remote villages with enormous implications. 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bioremediation of Heavy Metals using the Interaction between Plants and Genetically Engineered Microbes 2021-07-17T06:51:19+00:00 Pankaj Kumar Verma Shikha Verma Alok Kumar Meher Rudra Deo Tripathi Debasis Chakrabarty Nalini Pandey Excessive levels of heavy metals (HMs) in agricultural soil is a critical concerns for crop production and food safety and pose potential hazards to human and animal health. Anthropogenic sources including agriculture, mining, smelting, electroplating, and other industrial activities have resulted in the deposition of undesirable concentration of metals, such as arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), and lead (Pb) in the soil. Unlike many other pollutants, HMs are difficult to remove from the environment as they cannot be degraded by any method, and are ultimately indestructible. The use of microorganisms and plants for soil remediation of HMs are of great interest because of their high efficiency, ease of use, and cost-effective application. Microorganisms can be used to remediate contaminated soil by detoxification, sequestration, and solubilization of HMs to facilitate their extraction. These microbes may act on HMs by chelation, precipitation, transformation (oxidation-reduction, methylation), biosorption, and accumulation. However, high concentrations of HMs in soil lead to decreased number of soil microbes. These symbiotic rhizospheric microbes depend on plant root exudates for their nutrition, thus to improve the number of microbes, it is also essential to optimize microbial nutrition by optimizing plant-microbe interaction. Different approaches were adopted to address these problems, from enrichment with rhizosphere bacterial consortia resistant to HMs to genetic engineering of plant growth-promoting symbiotic microbes. These genetically engineered (GE) microbes show improved bioremediation potential by enhancing their metal metabolism efficiency as well as increasing soil fertility. In this review, we describe how GE microbes and their association with plants enhance metal tolerance, accumulation, and detoxification in microbes and plants. We also describe the potential of bioremediation using symbiosis between plants and GE microbes. 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Nitric Oxide as a Savior Molecule Against Stress Induced by Chromium and Cadmium 2021-07-17T06:51:20+00:00 Arun Kumar Maurya Dwaipayan Sinha Heavy metals (HMs) pollution is one of soil problems imposing great agronomic challenges leading to obstacles in ascertaining food safety. The deposition of HMs beyond permissible limits due to their uses in various agricultural, industrial and household purposes, greatly affect the soil fertility and physio-biochemical activities of plants growing in such soils. Among HMs, cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr) are very toxic, non-essential heavy metals whose concentrations have built-up recently in our environment due to several manmade activities. These elements enter into living organisms either by absorption through plants or are directly consumed by animals or microbes. They induce various morphological and physio-biochemical changes in plants ranging from seed germination, growth, nutrient uptake, photosynthesis to hormonal interactions. Excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generation are two important markers of nitro-oxidative stress during heavy metal stress. Plants counteract by activating defence responses by inducing expression of antioxidant enzymes like (CAT, SOD, APX) and antioxidant compounds like Vitamin C and GSH. Nitric oxide (NO) is one of the active gaseous molecules generated during nitro-oxidative stress induced by HMs like Cd and Cr. NO is generated in the plants by diverse enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems. The specific and dedicated enzyme system for NO generation is not yet identified in the plants. NO helps to counteract the effects of HMs by activating various biochemical machineries such as induction of antioxidant defence systems, protein nitrosylation, programmed cell death. It is the molecule that has very promising roles and need to be explored much in relation to heavy metals. 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Differential Expression of Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) and Stress-Related Genes in Rice Overexpressing MPK3 and MPK6 under Abiotic Stress 2021-07-17T06:51:20+00:00 Chandana Pandey Gopal Banerjee Alok Krishna Sinha Plants being sessile have ability to adapt themselves in constantly changing and challenging environment by perceiving external/internal cues and transducing them down to the nucleus for appropriate cellular reorganization. Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is a common reaction of plant cells towards such cues in development-related signal transduction pathways. The downstream events after the activation of MAPKs are largely unknown in plants. In the present study, we examined the effect of arsenic, salt and drought stress on growth parameters and transcript profiling of MAPKs, silicon transporters andstress responsivegenes in transgenic rice overexpressing OsMPK3 and OsMPK6 under the control of a dexamethasone (DEX)-inducible promoter, and possible role MAPKs in stress tolerance. Our results revealed that OsMPK3 and OsMPK6 overexpressing lines under arsenic stress and drought stress enhanced the transcript level of stress responsive genes, encoding enzymes superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutamine synthetase and aldehyde oxidase. Upregulation in transcripts profiling of three silicon transporter genes OsLsi1, OsLsi2 and OsLsi6 showed improved stress tolerance ability of OsMPK3 and OsMPK6 overexpressing lines by effective absorption of silicon. The fundamental knowledge about the function of MPK3 and MPK6, important member of MAPKs family may also lead to an engineered plant tolerant to various abiotic and biotic stresses. 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Change in Foraging Preference of Honey Bees and Plant Diversity during the Last Decade: A Case Study from Lucknow City, India 2021-07-17T06:51:20+00:00 Sumaiyah Farooqui Anjum Farooqui The expansion of cities around its rural suburbs in recent years is changing the landscape very fast due to human activities planned for their benefit in varied ways. The economically important plants and agri-pharmacoculture have been in focus during recent years. Two decades back the study area (Chinhat, Lucknow city extension, India) was an open, marshy land with a large perennial ox-bow lake (Kathauta tal) of the river Gomti which now flows through the middle of Lucknow city. During the last decade, this extensive agricultural land has changed to a posh urban set-up. The honey samples were collected from beehive in Amity Institute campus and in adjoining areas of Kathauta tal, Chinhat to unravel the foraging pattern of honey bees with the help of its pollen content illustrating the plant resources in the vicinity and for evaluating its forensic application. The pollen spectra of honey reveals more than 50 plant taxa accounting to 60% of trees and the honey produced here is multifloral type. An agri-pharmaco industry was explored in the area with high percentage of Cichorum intybus and Tinospora cordifolia pollen in honey samples. We discuss here the potentials of melissopalynology as a quick, low-cost and highly reliable technique in understanding the pattern of reforestation and reclamation in urban areas, honey quality and its applicability in monitoring the activities of urban human. 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Assessment of Lichens Diversity from Mandi District, Himachal Pradesh, India 2021-07-17T06:51:20+00:00 Monika Thakur Gaurav Kumar Mishra Sanjeeva Nayaka Hem Chander A total of 70 species of lichens belonging to 29 genera and 15 families were found growing in eight different localities of Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. The present study reveals the addition of 14 species of lichens as new to the state. The lichen genus Lecanora with 11 species exhibits the dominance in the area. Among the different localities of the district the area Sikandra Dhar showed maximum diversity of lichens followed by Balh valley, Barot and Mandi city as 19, 18, 17 and 16 species, respectively. The tropical zone exhibits luxuriant growth of trees like Pinus, Shorea robusta, Prunus, Celtis, Grewia and Rubina. The Rubina and Populus trees cultivated along road side bear luxuriant growth of Candelaria concolor together with Physcia dilatata, a foliose lichen. The temperate region of the district exhibits luxuriant growth of Quercus leucotricophora trees which support the luxuriant growth of Parmotrema nilgherrense, Ramalina conduplicans, Ramalina sinensis, Heterodermia diademata and Usnea species. 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Realization of Paleopolyploidy through Cytogenetic and Phylogenetic Characterization of Ten Species of Senna Mill., Fabaceae-Caesalpinioideae 2021-07-17T06:51:20+00:00 Ashutosh K. Verma Sarita Srivastava Onkar N. Maurya Rajveer S. Chuhan Rashmi Lahiri Taxonomically and phylogenetically Senna species complex is quite intriguing having several status and origin related issues. Keeping this view in mind and scope of cytological investigation 10 species of same genus viz. S. alata, S. alexandrina, S. italica, S. obtusifolia, S. occidentalis, S. polyphylla, S. siamea, S. sulfurea, S. surattensis and S. tora were analysed in cytological frame and comprehensive data/ information, is generated. The basic chromosomal analysis revealed regular meiotic behavior despite the occurrence of some irregularities. The regular occurrence of multivalents especially quadrivalents at diplotene as well as diakinesis stage and unavailability of individual having x=7 chromosome number possibly indicates paleopolyploid origin of worked out taxa. Individual anther basis pollen analysis provides some clues regarding on going evolutionary processes in the same genus. Considered cytological parameters based cluster analysis and their comparison with molecular marker based phylogenetic analysis of earlier workers revealed the efficacy of used parameters in phylogenetic characterization of Senna species complex. 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Indigenous Navigatory Devices used during the High Floods in North Bihar 2021-07-17T06:51:20+00:00 Vidyanath Jha This paper takes into account the methods of adaptations to the extreme situations of floods in the rainy season of 2020 in the rural and urban areas of Darbhanga district in northern Bihar, India. Boats made of different types of woods are the first choice of people. The region has a sprawling boat industry that provides a basis of livelihood to the wood smith community. Boats are generally made available to the needy people by the agencies of Government. However, those deprived of the boat facility adapt to the situation by carving makeshift devices made from banana pseudo stems, water hyacinth fronds, dry wood pieces, pitcher floats, bamboo rafts, cement bowls for feeding the livestock etc. High floods of 2020 witnessed people using boats of thermocol and rubber tubes on a large scale. All these devices, whether natural or man-made, work on the principle of Archimedes. The paper reports an innovative practice of using the hollow gas cylinders intricately strung in the fashion of an open boat that was used for about 15-20 days till the high floods receded in the village Harichanda of Hanuman Nagar C.D. Block of Darbhanga district India. The system was devised by local young men to tide over the crisis of ferrying people to local orchards for defecation and also for maintaining the supply chain of drinking water, cooking gas and other essential services. The plant items achieve buoyancy due to their density lower than water. Those made of flattened wood or tin plates achieve floatability on account of large volume of water that they displace. The weight of people carried on these boats is lighter than the weight of the volume of water displaced in the process. 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mycoremediation: A Step towards Sustainability 2021-07-17T06:51:20+00:00 Manisha Mishra Deepa Srivastava Mycoremediation is a new wave of cutting-edge technology in this era that incorporates fungi in nursing environment damaged by toxins. Instigating fungi to such contaminated places leads the way for the natural cleaning process. Waste treatment plants running on incinerators, exercising physical and chemical methods, are injurious to the health of organisms and the environment. They lead to life-threatening diseases and negative soil pollution. Eco-friendly and secure techniques are to be employed for their management. Microfungi, as well as macrofungi, help in this procedure. They degrade environmental wastes as heavy metals, aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated compounds, organic compounds by their extracellular enzymes without harming any natural component of soil. Demand and the need for reaching net-zero emission remain farsighted deed in the current scenario of rapid industrialization. Therefore, merging of the fungi with new techniques can speed up other processes of sustainable recovery of hazardous pollutants that may help in fighting against deleterious pollution levels. Their enzymes assert a great role and help in xenobiotic degradation rendering land and water clean and safe. Nevertheless, they do not have any special growth demand. White rot fungi and many mushrooms can grow on a wide range of substrates. The most common being sawdust, agricultural waste, and straw. Their biosorption efficiency helps to reclaim contaminated land. Ligninolytic enzymes uphold the mycoremediation process. In this review, we have encapsulated the mycoremediation of toxic substances by various genera and species of fungi along with the mechanisms involved. The aim is to precisely draw attention to the magnificently inherited traits of fungi that make them apt for the remediation process. 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Horseshoe Crab: A Keystone Species of Mangrove Forests of Coastal Belts of Sunderban 2021-07-17T06:51:20+00:00 Babita Kumari Hitesh Solanki The mangroves within the biosphere reserve of Sundarban and Mahanadi Delta at Bhitarkanika and Kendrapara along the coastal belt of Bay of Bengal have been under considerable human impingement especially over the last few decades. Land reclamation for settlements along with agriculture and unplanned aquaculture practices, mechanized fishing in addition to non sustainable tourism activities proved deterrent to the ecosystem. It effect not to mention the additional burdens of pollution and changes in hydrological regimes that in turn causing adverse influence on subsistence dwellers in and around north-east coastal belt of Bay of Bengal. The horseshoe crabs are the creature on this earth surviving for the past 450 million years or so. Most of the biogenic activities of the horseshoe crab occur in the open ocean at a deeper zone. They specifically migrate regularly towards the shore for the purpose of breeding. Among the two Indian horseshoe crab species namely, Tachypleus gigas and Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda, the later species prefers mangrove habitat for breeding along the north-east coast of India. However, in spite of all previous studies on T. gigas such as spawning migration, feeding behaviour, breeding biology and several other aspects, no concerted efforts have been made for C. rotundicauda to develop effective strategies in protecting and conserving both the habitat and population of this valuable species along the coastal areas of India. The depleting population and losing important biodiversity has prompted us to undertake such a novel project. The degradation and destruction of the ground in the mangrove ecosystem of this species by natural and anthropogenic activities have also resulted in mass depletion of the population of this species along the north-east coast of West Bengal and Odisha. A mature female of this species carries hundreds of eggs under its prosoma but releases only a few eggs in one spawning act in a nest on suitable muddy breeding grounds in mangrove areas. The total number of eggs laid varied from 18 to 258 in each nest. The nest of the horseshoe crab is a depression in mud made by the female for laying their gametes. After fertilization, most of the pairs migrate to their natural habitat. 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fungicidal Management of False Smut Disease in Rice Caused by Ustilaginoidea virens 2021-07-17T06:51:21+00:00 Pardeep Kumar Pardeep Kumar Mishra Sunil Kumar Shesh N. Singh Devendra P. Singh False smut of rice caused by the fungus Ustilaginoidea virens has been recorded, in recent years, in the all rice growing areas of State Uttar Pradesh, India. Recommended fungicides are not yet available for chemically controlling the disease. Therefore, uses of unregistered fungicides are common by the farmers, for the management of the disease. The present study, was undertaken to identify effectiveness of fungicides to control false smut of rice. Four systemic fungicides (Propiconazole 25% EC @ 1.0 ml/L, Azoxystrobin 18.2% + Difenconazole 11.4% SC @ 0.5 g + 0.5 ml/L, Azoxystrobin 18.2% @ 1.0 g/L and Tebuconazole 250 EC @ 1.0 ml/L) were evaluated as foliar application in the naturally induced diseased rice, at five different locations in district Siddharthnagar, Uttar Pradesh. Fungicide was applied twice, first at panicle initiation and second at early flowering stage. All the fungicides applied were found effective in controlling the disease. As compared to the untreated (only water application), the fungicide ‘Propiconazole 25% EC’ reduced the maximum disease severity by 93.57%, followed by ‘Azoxystrobin 18.2% + Difenconazole 11.4% SC @ 0.5 g + 0.5 ml/L’, Fungicide Tebuconazole 250 EC @ 1.0 ml/L was found least effective in controlling the disease. It is concluded that more multi-location experiments will be required to reach a decisive conclusion on foliar chemical options for controlling rice false smut disease in eastern parts of Uttar Pradesh. 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Comparative Study of Lead and Cadmium Levels in Freshwater Fishes 2021-07-17T06:51:21+00:00 Geeta Singh Water pollution is one of the major environmental problem in the world. Fishes have a natural tendency to accumulate heavy metals in their bodies. Among the various toxic heavy metals, lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are most widely dispersed metals in the environment and also create global concern due to causing potential hazards to public health. Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) were determined in edible tissues of some economically important freshwater fishes, collected from the various markets of Agra region and analysed for their contamination. Highest concentrations were observed in summer followed by winter and rainy seasons. The frequency of heavy metal contamination was higher in Labio rohita than other fish commodities. It was concluded that the levels of metals were different but within the maximum residue levels recommended by National and International standards. Findings of the present study have also been corroborated with some other national and International studies. 2020-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##