A Study on Etiological Spectrum of Dysphagia in North India: An Experience from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Rural Area
Keywords: Carcinoma esophagus, Dysphagia, Upper GI endoscopy.
AbstractIntroduction: Dysphagia is a common symptom reported in Gastroenterology out patient departments (OPD’s). It can have a significant impact on quality of life. It has a variety of causes which can be both benign and malignant. Previous studies from India have reported a predominance of benign causes in our subcontinent. This prospective study was carried out in a tertiary care centre situated in rural part of Northern India. Aim: The study was aimed to study the etiological spectrum of patients presenting with symptom of dysphagia in the gastroenterology department. Material and Methods: 97 patients were included in the study from June 2020 to April 2021. A comprehensive history was taken. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy was done in all patients with barium swallow, computed tomography (CT) scan, and biopsies done as required. Results: Mean age of the patients in the study was 52.6, with an age range of 4 to 86 years. 55.6% of patients in the study were males. Male:Female was 1.25:1. 62.9% of patients had a malignant etiology for dysphagia. This was in contrast to previous studies in which benign causes were more prevalent. Carcinoma esophagus was the most common malignant cause for dysphagia. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common pathological type, seen in 82.4% of patients with esophageal cancer. Among the benign causes, peptic esophageal stricture was the most common cause seen in 9.2% of cases. Other causes included Corrosive esophageal stricture, Achalasia cardia, Esophageal candidiasis, Esophageal webs. Conclusion: We concluded that malignancy was an important cause of dysphagia in our study. Thus, any patient presenting with dysphagia should be evaluated with a high degree of suspicion.
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