Morphological variations and Ear Biometrics as an aid in identification among populations of Punjab, Haryana and Jammu and Kashmir – A Comparative Study.
Keywords: Identification, Ear Morphology, Ear Biometrics, Ear Prints, Total Ear Length, Ear Symmetry, Ear Shape, Ear Index, lobule index
AbstractIntroduction: The human ear is the most defining feature of the face. The anatomical structure of the external ear is utilized for personal identification of living subjects in relation to criminal activity. Aim: To evaluate and compare the uniqueness of morphological and biometric variations of both ears for individualization among subpopulations of India in states of Punjab, Haryana and Jammu and Kashmir. To determine the Morphology and Biometrics of both ears in both male and female populations of Punjab, Haryana and Jammu and Kashmir. To study and compare the Ear Prints of population of three states and find a correlation between them. Materials and Methods: The present study was carried out randomly selected 120 students; 40 from Punjab (P), 40 from Haryana (H) and 40 from Jammu and Kashmir (J and K) population zones of India out of which 20 subjects were males and 20 were females from each population group of age between 18 to 25 years. Nine ear parameters were recorded twice using digital vernier calipers by single investigator and two indices (Ear Index and Lobule Index) were calculated for both the ears. Morphological ear shapes and lobule attachment were also noted.Chi-square test and one way ANOVA tests were performed on cross tabulations followed by turkey HSD test to evaluate significant relationship between both genders in three populations. Results: The highest total ear length in both ears (left and right) was noted in females of Haryana; followed by Punjab and J and K. Out of the total sample size, 60.41% ear lobes were free and 39.59% were attached. 100% Ear symmetry was seen in both ears among both genders of Haryana population and Oval ear shape was observed mostly followed by round, rectangular and triangular in Punjab and Haryana populations and no triangular morphology was observed in J and K population. The highest Ear Index in left ear was seen in both genders in population of Punjab whereas in that of right ear, highest ear index was seen in females of Haryana and males of Punjab population. The highest lobule index was noted in both the ears of females as well as males in Haryana population. Conclusion: The present study results of morphological examination and morpholometric variations of human ears can be used as supportive evidence as having a role in forensic sciences by the identification of landmarks variations in different ethnic groups.
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